Topwork fruit tree with scion
Topwork fruit tree with scion wood
Topwork fruit tree with scion wood by: topwork fruit tree with scion wood.
In a conventional approach to grafting, scion wood is taken from one or more existing branches of the tree (called a rootstock), grafted onto the stock itself, and the resulting “grafted” tree is then grown. Unfortunately, grafts between scion wood and rootstock wood cannot “interbreed” in the sense that the grafted trees produced by the cross cannot produce a tree with scion and rootstock wood of the same genotype, and in that case, the whole effort of the grafting fails. What occurs is that the grafted wood becomes entirely one kind or the other, scion or rootstock. Moreover, grafting is an extremely labor-intensive process, since not only must the scion be taken from the tree but also the rootstock must be found.
The Topwork system overcomes these limitations by using “topwork”, a technique that allows for the grafting of wood of very different types together. The topwork technique is the only way in which grafts of the kind commonly called “hybrid” can be made. The method requires no more skill or effort than grafting the roots of a vegetable, but allows the creation of trees with different types of wood in different proportions.
In a conventional graft, the scion takes root in the parent stock and grows up to form a new branch with new roots, and eventually bears leaves and flowers. In topwork, the branches from the top of the tree are used as “stock”, and the branches from the root of the tree as the “scion”. Then, the two are grafted together. Unlike in conventional grafting, the topwork graft does not have to be done at the time the tree is planted. Moreover, there is no need for rootstock trees, or the grafting process to take place at the time the tree is planted. In the Topwork system, the stocks and scions may be different individuals of the same species. This is especially valuable in the case of cross-pollinated species, because it allows a variety of trees to be created from a single tree. It is therefore possible to reproduce new varieties from a single specimen.
The Topwork system has been known in its principle and design for nearly a century, but only now has this method been put to use commercially. The Topwork system is used in the construction of the new Eucalyptus Tree in the United States and the new Eucalyptus Trees in Australia, as well as a part of the new Eucalyptus Trees in Canada. The Tree of the Future in the United States and the Topwork Centre in Victoria are already in the construction stage, and the commercial plantings are about to begin. A number of companies are working on the project, including the ArborGen corporation in the United States, and Plant Genetic Systems in Canada, in association with the British Columbia government.
The Eucalyptus Tree, of the genus Eucalyptus, in the Pinaceae family, is the tree with the largest crown. In most cases, the crown spreads horizontally along the top of the tree for over a hundred feet. In Australia, which is home to the Eucalyptus Tree, and the Tree of the Future in the United States, the trees are planted up to a hundred feet tall. Since they are only planted temporarily, it is necessary to know in advance the method that will be used to prepare and maintain them.
The Eucalyptus Tree is a species of flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, native to Australia. Common names include eucalyptus and red gum. It is one of the tallest species in the world. Eucalyptus trees are widely planted throughout the world and play an important role in Australia and New Zealand. The Eucalyptus Tree is native to most of mainland Australia and to Tasmania. Its distribution is limited by climatic conditions. It has also naturalised outside its native range and, like many invasive species, it is now a serious threat to biodiversity. There are two subspecies of Eucalyptus: the red-flowering E. siderophila, which is found throughout northern and central Australia, and the orange-flowering E. leucoxylon, found only in Western Australia. The common names of red gum, bottlebrush, stringybark and swamp cypress are derived from the appearance of the species.
The fruit is a small spherical and round gumball known as a ‘eucalyptus gum’, though gumnuts are also sometimes called ‘gum’. It is a sticky substance which can be dried and then cut and broken up to give a fine powder, which is often called ‘gum’. The eucalyptus gum is obtained from the flowers, after they have been rubbed against the sticky surface of the trees. It is one of Australia’s most important exports, and is used in a wide variety of commercial products, including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, rubber and foods.
The gum contains a number of essential oils and waxes which impart their characteristic flavour to foods when incorporated into products. The oil is a high-viscosity mixture of various terpenes, aldehydes, ketones, and other hydrocarbons, mainly in the C10 to C14 hydrocarbon range, as well as many oxygenated hydrocarbons and ethers. The gum’s unique flavour is derived from complex aromas of C12-C14 terpenes. A wide range of essential oils may also be isolated by solvent extraction.
The oil is generally extracted by one of two methods: steam distillation, which is typically used when the oil is present in sufficient quantities, and more usually used in the production of ‘spicy’ or ‘fruity’ flavours, and solvent extraction, which uses hydrocarbons which are miscible in the oil but which the oil is able to extract. The oil is then concentrated to produce its pure essential oil.
There is some variability in the types of essential oil produced from the different varieties of eucalyptus, with each variety producing oils of somewhat differing composition. The oil from the red and brown varieties is particularly sought after due to its greater ‘bruising’ properties when using distillation techniques.
The gum itself is used in the manufacture of a number of products, including chewing gum, food products such as confectionery, pharmaceuticals, and fragrances. The oil is used in many other industrial products, including insecticides and other commercial products. It is also widely used in the production of flavourings, medicines, food and feed additives, pesticides, and perfumes.
Bulk production is usually carried out by either using the gum as an extender or as a thickener in its unrefined state, to produce the pure essential oil or its extract, or by chemical methods to manufacture the gum itself. In a conventional process, the essential oil is extracted from the gum by distillation, leaving the by-product containing the gum-residue and other non-essential oils. Some of these oils may be sold for use in industrial products.
More recently, the use of industrial processes which have become available has made it possible to manufacture the gum without the presence of the essential oils and other impurities.
The following products are produced from the gum:
Gum in the form of a paste or powder and suitable for